You can safely store water for six months to a year, depending on how it is packaged.
If it's commercially-bottled "spring" or "drinking" water, the American Red Cross recommends you can keep it stored for a year as long as the container isn't opened. Once the container is opened, use the water immediately.
It's much less expensive to store tap water in your own containers, it's recommended you store tap water for six months maximum.
It's a good idea to label and date the water bottles or containers.
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The Department of Homeland Security recommends that you store at least 1 gallon of water per person, per day and keep a three-day supply of water on hand. The American Red Cross also recommends one gallon of water per person per day, but with a two-week supply for every person in your household. For a family of four, that's 56 gallons of water.
Use clean containers of heavy, opaque plastic with screw-on caps. The American Red Cross suggests clean plastic soft drink bottles (it's very difficult to clean them), food-grade plastic containers or drums. Don't reuse plastic milk containers, since they are extremely difficult to clean completely and can contaminate your stored water. There are a number of commercial water storage containers available designed for storing drinking water.
You can also buy commercially bottled "spring" or "drinking" water and store it for up to a year.
If you're using treated tap water, like CCWD tap water, and you do not need to purify the water before storing it in a clean container. You will not need to purify the water when you use it, if it's been stored for less than six months, again in a clean container.